В. Obrusanszky/ Б. Обрусански


The communication was one of the most important elements for great empires from the ancient times, the kings or rulers were able to get connected their provinces. The relay system was established in antiquity, it was one of the great innovations of the equestrian steppe empires, and at certain intervals stops were established, reserved specifically for equestrian envoys. The earliest source data on communications in the Inner-Asian region is found in the Chinese Chronicles, where in relation to the Huns and their descendants, it says that on arrival at the emperor’s court, the envoy had to provide a certain object in order to prove their identity. It was the first diplomatic passport, which provided exemptions and special rights for their holders. We find data on the fact that not only in Inner Asia, but the Huns living in Europe have also operated such an advanced communication system. The Chronicum Pictum or Picture Chronicle of Vienna has captured that Attila the Hun king had also had a very well-functioning communications network in the 5th century AD. Envoys also mentioned the ferry system also operated inside the relay system both in Hunnic and Mongolian period. The description of this system in many respects is the same as the post network of Inner- Asia, of which the most detailed records are from the time of the Mongolian Empire, when foreign envoys and travellers have accurately described how it works.


Relay system, Inner-Asia, Mongols, Attila the Hun, Huns, diplomatic passport, gerege, belge, postal system, communication



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